Module 12: Figure calcium homoeostasis in DA neurons
Dopaminergic neuronal calcium homoeostasis.
The Ca2+ ON reactions (shown in green) responsible for the rising phase of each transient are balanced by the OFF reactions responsible for the falling phase (for details see Module 10: Figure tonic oscillation in DA neurons). Both the cytosolic buffers and the mitochondria play a role in regulating Ca2+ dynamics during the course of each transient. Parkinson's disease may be caused by a dysregulation of this Ca2+ network that seems to have a major impact on mitochondrial metabolism resulting in excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation.