Module 11: Figure macrophage signalling
Modulation of inflammatory responses.
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) acting through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) use the Toll receptor signalling pathway to activate the transcriptional processes that result in the release of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β). These inflammatory signalling pathways can be modulated by both the cyclic AMP and Ca2+ signalling pathways, as described in the text. PAF, platelet-activating factor; (lyso)-PL, (lyso)-phospholipid.