High resolution

Module 11: Figure formation and action of PAMPs

The role of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in triggering the inflammatory response.

Unique components derived from different pathogens make up the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that activate the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) located on macrophages and some other cell types. These TLRs are located either on the plasma membrane or on the endosomal membranes. The TLRs, such as TLR4, act through the Toll receptor signalling pathway (Module 2: Figure Toll receptor signalling). The TLRs on endosomal membranes function in virus recognition (Module 2: Figure virus recognition). CpG DNA, cytidine-phosphate-guanosine DNA; dsRNA, double-stranded RNA; ssRNA, single-stranded RNA; MAP kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase.