High resolution

Module 11: Figure autophagy signalling mechanisms

Autophagy signalling mechanisms.

A family of autophagy-related gene (Atg) products carry out the signalling mechanisms that activate autophagy. When the target of rapamycin (TOR) is switched off, the ULK1/Atg13/FIP200 complex is activated to stimulate the induction of autophagy. Vesicle nucleation is activated by a macromolecular complex that controls the hVPS34 responsible for forming PtdIns3P. Elongation depends on two ubiquitin-like pathways carried out by a series of Atg proteins that result in the conjugation of the Atg protein LC3-I to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to form LC3II. See the text for further details.