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Module 10: Figure tonic excitatory drive and neuronal rhythms

Tonic excitatory drive and the control of neuronal rhythms.

The ascending arousal system releases transmitters such as orexin, acetylcholine (ACh), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) that activate signalling systems that control neural rhythms which occur during the sleep/wake cycle. The tonic excitatory drive mechanism depends on membrane depolarization that results from closing the KV7.2/KV7.3 channels responsible for the M current and the opening of the Ca2+-activated non-specific cation channel (ICAN) and the hyperpolarizing-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel responsible for the Ih current.