High resolution

Module 10: Figure pre-BötC respiratory circuit

Respiratory circuit from the pre-Bötzinger region of the brain stem.

Pre-Bötzinger (pre-BötC) neurons (green and blue) generate the respiratory rhythm that is passed via a local circuit to the premotoneurons and XII motoneurons (purple) that leave the brainstem through the XII nerve. The concentration of Ca2+ recorded from the pre-BötC begins to increase before the onset of the pacemaker depolarization that precedes the onset of the burst of action potential. The bottom trace recorded the population discharge from the XII nerve. The way in which the pre-BötC neurons are connected together to form the respiratory pacemaker circuits is shown in Module 10: Figure respiratory pacemaker circuit. This figure was drawn from information published in Koizumi and Smith (2008) and Koizumi et al. (2008).