High resolution

Module 10: Figure neuronal gene transcription

Ca2+-mediated neuronal gene transcription.

Elevation of Ca2+ through depolarization of the neuronal membrane (∆V) to stimulate voltage-operated channels (VOCs) or through glutamate-dependent NMDA receptor (NMDAR) stimulation acts to release calmodulin (CaM) bound to neurogranin. Ca2+/CaM then induces gene transcription either directly through nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) or Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), or indirectly by recruiting the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or cyclic AMP-dependent signalling pathways.