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Module 10: Figure kisspeptin neuronal circuit

Kisspeptin neuronal circuit.

Kisspeptin neurons located in the AVPV (anteroventral periventricular) and arcuate nuclei within the hypothalamus control the activity of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. They release kisspeptin that acts on GPR54 receptors on the GnRH neurons to release GnRH, which then acts on GnRHR receptors on gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary to release the gonadotropins LH (luteinising hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone). These gonadotropins then act on the gonads to release the sex steroids that can feedback to regulate the kisspeptin neurons. In females, oestradiol increases the synthesis of kisspeptin in the AVPV neurons, but inhibits that in the arcuate neurons. Testosterone inhibits the synthesis of kisspeptin in the arcuate neurons.