High resolution

Module 10: Figure Purkinje cell input-specific Ca2+ signals

Localized Ca2+ signalling in single spines of a Purkinje neuron.

a. A Purkinje neuron filled with a Ca2+ indicator (Calcium Green) was stimulated through the parallel fibre input (five pulses at 50 Hz). Panels b–d illustrate the regions under investigation, with the arrows pointing to the active spine that gave the Ca2+ signal shown in panel f. Σ is the resting fluorescence level taken at four different depths, while Δ represents the difference images (stimulated compared with resting), which show that the Ca2+ response occurs in a single spine with little activation of the dendrite. Reproduced, with permission, from Denk, W., Sugimori, M. and Llinas, R. (1995) Two types of calcium response limited to single spines in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92:8279–8282. Copyright (1995) National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A.; see Denk et al. 1995.