Module 10: Figure Ca2+ signals in olfactory cilia
Olfactory cilia respond to odorants by generating rapid Ca2+ transients.
Olfactory receptor cells have fine cilia that extend out from the knob (A). Under resting conditions, there is no detectable signal in these fine cilia (B), but 2 s after adding the odorant cineole, there was a rapid increase within the cilia (C) that was still present 4 s later (D), but which had declined back to the resting level by 16 s (E). The time course for this response, which was taken from the cilium marked by a white arrow in C, is shown in F. G shows that the odorant also caused increases in Ca2+ in other cellular compartments. H shows that the amplitude of the Ca2+ transient was related to the odorant concentration. Reproduced, with permission, from Leinders-Zufall, T., Greer, C.A., Shepherd, G.M. and Zufall, F. (1998) Imaging odor-induced calcium transients in single olfactory cilia: specificity of activation and role in transduction. J. Neurosci. 18:5630–5639. Copyright (1998) by the Society for Neuroscience; see Leinders-Zufall et al. 1998.