Module 10: Figure hypothalamic Ca2+ syntilla
Ca2+ syntillas in a hypothalamic nerve terminal.
A and B. Images of a spontaneous Ca2+ syntilla in a hypothalamic nerve terminal loaded with Fluo3 and incubated in a Ca2+-free solution and held at −80 mV. C. The time course of the syntilla shown in black, with the first derivative shown in red. An expanded time scale on the right shows that these syntilla develop very fast. Reproduced, with permission, from De Crescenzo, V., ZhuGe, R., Velázquez-Marrero, C., Lifshitz, L.M., Custer, E., Carmichael, J., Lai, F.A., Tuft, R.A., Fogarty, K.E., Lemos, J.R. and Walsh, J.V. (2004) Ca2+ syntillas, miniature Ca2+ release events in terminals of hypothalamic neurons, are increased in frequency by depolarization in the absence of Ca2+ influx. J. Neurosci. 24:1226–1235. Copyright (2004) by the Society for Neuroscience; see De Crescenzo et al. 2004.