High resolution

Module 10: Figure Ca2+ control of LTD and LTP

Dual action of Ca2+ in controlling either long-term depression (LTD) or long-term potentiation (LTP).

Long-term potentiation (LTP) occurs when high levels of Ca2+ activate Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), resulting in phosphorylation of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. Conversely, low levels of Ca2+ activate calcineurin (CaN), leading to AMPA receptor dephosphorylation and long-term depression (LTD). Further details of how different levels of Ca2+ can alter the balance between phosphorylation/dephosphorylation are provided in Module 3: Figure AMPA receptor phosphorylation.