Module 9: Figure growth factor signalling
Growth factors use a large number of signalling pathways to activate cell proliferation.
A number of signalling pathways co-operate with each other to mediate the action of growth factors. Those components coloured in red are responsible for carrying information from the cell surface into the nucleus. Some of these components are transcription factors, whereas others are signalling components such as Ca2+ and protein kinases such as extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (PKB) that target transcription factors resident within the nucleus. All of these transcription factors control the expression of the cell cycle components that are required to induce DNA synthesis. Further details of these signalling pathways are given in the text.