Module 8: Figure adenophostin-enhanced ICSI
Enhancement of spermatid intracytoplasmic spermatozoa injection (ICSI) by adenophostin.
A. Injection of a spermatid had no effect on Ca2+ signalling, and there was no fertilization in that the oocyte chromosomes remained in metaphase II (black arrow in F) and the spermatid nucleus remained intact (white arrow in F). B. Injection of adenophostin to give a final concentration of 300 nM triggered regular Ca2+ oscillations that persisted for over 2 h. C. Normal oscillations resulting from sperm-induced fertilization. D. Oscillations in Ca2+ induced by fertilization of a spermatid together with adenophostin. This combination initiated a normal fertilization response, as shown by the extrusion of the second polar body and the appearance of two large pronuclei. Reproduced, with permission. Copyright © 1998, Biol. Reprod. Online by Society for the Study of Reproduction; see Sato et al. 1998.