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Module 7: Figure β-cell signalling

Control of insulin release and biosynthesis by insulin-secreting β-cells.

β-Cells are controlled by multiple signalling pathways that regulate both the synthesis and the release of insulin. One important regulator is glucose itself, which enters through the glucose transporter (GLUT2) and is rapidly phosphorylated by hexokinase IV to form glucose 6-phosphate (G6P). G6P then feeds into glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to increase the level of ATP and reduce the level of AMP, which function as metabolic messengers to control both insulin release and biosynthesis. Information on the dual oscillation model depicted in this figure was taken from Bertram et al. (2007).