Module 7: Figure astrocytic synchronization of hippocampal neurons
Synchronization of hippocampal neural activity by spontaneous astrocytic Ca2+ transients.
The arrangement of the astrocyte (cell 1) and the three neurons (cells 2, 3 and 4) are outlined in panel A. Panel B reveals how a spontaneous transient in the astrocyte resulted in a delayed, but synchronous elevation in all three neurons. Reproduced from Neuron, Vol. 43, Fellin, T., Pascual, O., Gobbo, S., Pozzan, T., Haydon, P.G. and Carmignoto, G., Neuronal synchrony mediated by astrocyte glutamate through activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors, pp. 729–743. Copyright (2004), with permission from Elsevier; see Fellin et al. 2004.