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Module 7: Figure kidney tubule function

Functional organization and control of kidney tubule urine formation.

The primary filtrate is formed by ultrafiltration (black arrow) at the glomerulus. Angiotensin II controls the filtration rate by acting on smooth muscle cells that control blood flow through the afferent arteriole (AA). This primary filtrate is modified as it flows through the tubule by the absorption of ions and water that are regulated by various hormones as described in the text. DCT, distal convoluted tubule; PCT, proximal convoluted tubule; PTH, parathyroid hormone; TALH, thick ascending loop of Henle.