High resolution

Module 7: Figure bladder SMC activation

Neural activation of bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs).

Smooth muscle cells of the bladder are activated by neurotransmitters such as ATP and acetylcholine (ACh) released from varicosity that occur along the axons of the nerves that innervate the bladder. These two transmitters induce increases in Ca2+ through two separate pathways as described in the text.