Module 4: Figure NRF-2 antioxidant function
NRF-2 antioxidant function.
The nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (NRF-2) is a stress-sensing transcription factor that responds to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the absence of cell stress and ROS, NRF-2 binds to Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), which is associated with the ubiquitin ligase Cullin 3 that ubiquitinylates NRF-2 resulting in its degradation by the proteasome. When ROS levels rise, the Keap1 is oxidized and no longer binds to NRF-2, which then enters the nucleus where it binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE) to enhance the expression of a large number of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes.