High resolution

Module 4: Figure NFAT translocation

The Ca2+-dependent translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) from the cytoplasm into the nucleus.

When a green fluorescent protein (GFP)/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) construct is expressed in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, it is located in the cytoplasm at rest (see panel A,i). Upon an increase in Ca2+ as shown in the lower panels of A, the GFP/NFAT moves from the cytoplasm into the nucleus as shown in panel A,iv. The time course of these changes is shown in B. Note how the increase in Ca2+ induces a fall in the cytosolic level of GFP/NFAT, with a corresponding increase in the nucleus. Reproduced by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: EMBO J., Tomida, T., Hirose, K., Takizawa, A., Shibasaki, F. and Iino, M. (2003) NFAT functions as a working memory of Ca2+ signals in decoding Ca2+ oscillation. EMBO J., 22:3825–3832. Copyright (2003); http://www.nature.com/emboj; see Tomida et al. (2003).