High resolution

Module 3: Figure cell volume regulation

Cell volume regulation model.

This model attempts to show how the cation-chloride exchangers such as Na+-K+-2Cl cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) and K+-Cl cotransporter 1 (KCC1) are activated or inhibited to bring about cell volume increases and decreases. The With no lysine (k) (WNK) kinases and the Ste-related proline-alanine-rich (SPAK) kinase form a signalling network to regulate the cotransporters.