Module 2: Figure summary of redox signalling
Summary of the main features of redox signalling.
The sequential processes that constitute redox signalling begin with an external signal activating a receptor (R) that then generates reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide radical (O2−•), which is then converted into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by superoxide dismutase (SOD). O2−• and H2O2 diffuse into the cell where they exert their messenger action by stimulating the oxidation of specific proteins, sometimes forming an internal disulphide bond. Recovery is carried out by various enzyme systems that return the target protein to its reduced state. The oxidized protein acts to stimulate a variety of cellular processes.