High resolution

Module 2: Figure sites of ROS formation

The two main sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation.

There are two main sites of ROS formation in cells. One is at the level of the plasma membrane, where an NADPH oxidase complex is activated by cell signalling pathways. The other is at the mitochondria, where ROS are produced as a result of electron leakage from the electron transport chain. As indicated, this production of ROS appears as microdomains indicating that ROS signalling might be highly localized in cells.