High resolution

Module 2: Figure Ca2+ modules

Ca2+ signalling modules.

Some of the main Ca2+ signalling modules that cells employ to generate Ca2+ signals are depicted. Ca2+ is either derived from the external medium or released from internal stores such as the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in muscle or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in other cell types. The ion channels responsible for gating Ca2+ in these different modules are explained in the text.