Module 2: Figure ER stress signalling
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signalling pathways.
An accumulation of misfolded proteins or an excessive accumulation of normal proteins activate a number of signalling pathways. Chaperones within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen are responsible for folding newly synthesized proteins into their tertiary structures prior to their export to the Golgi. A variety of stress factors, including a decline in the luminal level of Ca2+, results in dysfunctional chaperones and an accumulation of misfolded proteins that can activate a number of signalling pathways.