Module 1: Figure cytokines
Summary of cytokine signalling pathways.
Cytokines and various apoptotic and inflammatory mediators act on non-enzyme-containing receptors that consist of variable numbers of subunits. Each monomer has a single transmembrane domain with an extracellular ligand-binding domain and an inner cytoplasmic domain that lacks enzyme activity but can associate with a number of transducing elements that generate different messengers. Further details of the organization of the type I cytokine receptors are shown in Module 1: Figure class I cytokine receptors. Details of the signal transduction mechanisms induced by TNFRs and TLR/IL-1Rs are shown in (Module 2: Figure NF-κB activation) and (Module 2: Figure Toll receptor signalling) respectively.